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However, in contrast to other lactic acid bacteria, the possible beneficial effects of Weissella spp. Caenorhabditis elegans is a small, free-living soil nematode used in various fields of research. elegans is a particularly useful model to study ageing because of its short lifespan and the fact that it is amenable to genetic analyses. (b) Fluorescence was quantified using Image J software. Meanwhile, brood size was smaller in Weissella-fed worms compared with the control group (Fig. Interestingly, the reproductive periods in the Weissella-fed groups were slightly longer compared with the E. The mean total brood sizes for each pair of worms were 237, 84 and 74 in worms fed E. (b) Total brood size was determined from 30 animals, and values represent the mean for each pair of worms. coli OP50 (We next determined the level of food intake by measuring the pharyngeal pumping rate. Interestingly, many worms appeared to prefer lactic acid (125.0 ± 4.00) at 30 min after feeding on the test compounds, and again, the numbers of worms in the circle were similar (more than 300 worms) in each test at 60 min after feeding on lactic acid or 95% ethanol. 6c).(a) Depending on the degree of nuclear GFP fluorescence, three different states of translocation of DAF-16:: GFP from the cytoplasm into cell nuclei can be distinguished: cytosolic (cyt, left; no nuclear GFP fluorescence), intermediate (int, centre; weak nuclear GFP fluorescence), and nuclear (nuc, right; strong nuclear GFP fluorescence) DAF-16:: GFP localization. elegans loss-of-function mutants for each of these genes were fed Weissella or E. Weissella-fed mutant worms with loss-of-function mutations in daf-16, aak-2 or jnk-1 showed no extension in lifespan compared with the E. elegans rapidly change their behaviours and innate chemosensory preferences, ROS (by-products of respiration) are generally believed to be harmful to biological processes. Although the factor(s) involved in elevating ROS levels in W. elegans remain unknown, several positive effects have been reported regarding ROS and longevity in C. First, ROS induces the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), which detoxifies ROS. koreensis increased and decreased, respectively, compared with the worms fed with E. The insulin/IGF-1 receptor, DAF-2, was not related to the lifespan extension of C. It is possible that similar mechanisms of pro-longevity exist in C. Additionally, dietary restriction is known to extend lifespan and to retard age-related health declines in a number of different species, including rodents, worms, yeast and possibly primates. cibaria in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth (Difco) for 24 h without shaking.

Several studies have described the mechanisms whereby lactic acid bacteria extend the lifespan of C. The graph depicts the mean percentage in arbitrary units relative to that of control worms fed E. Ten worms were used for each measurement; We measured the locomotory rate of C. Body size increased with age in all groups; however, the Weissella-fed worms were smaller than E. Lowering the pharyngeal pumping rate can induce dietary restriction by limiting feeding (similar to what occurs in eat-2 mutants). coli OP50 to Weissella at 30 min after feeding the test strains; however, the numbers of worms in the circle (see Fig. coli OP 50 or Weissella were similar (more than 300 worms) in each test at 60 min after feeding the test strains, which means that C. We investigated the expression of age-related genes, including those involved in diet restriction in C. (b) Representative images of transgenic strain CF1407 fed with E. coli control group, which suggests an essential role for these genes in the increased longevity of Weissella-fed worms (Table 1, Fig. Unexpectedly, the lifespans of sod-3, jkk-1, skn-1, hif-1 and daf-2 mutants still increased when fed Weissella. However, it has been reported that ROS production induces enzymes that detoxify oxygen radicals, to defend against ROS damage. This may have occurred because Weissella species might produce different types of ROS that are more or less reactive to 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA). Second, ROS promote the expression of hif-1, which also regulates lifespan. It is unclear whether dietary restriction affects other animals in the same way, but it is possible that the mechanisms identified in this study may apply to other species including humans. cibaria KACC 11845 were obtained from the Korean Agricultural Culture Collection (KACC) and used as test food sources for nematodes. coli OP50 was provided by the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center, University of Minnesota (CGC) and used as a control food source. coli OP50 was grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth (Difco, Detroit, MI, USA) at 37 °C for 18−24 h with shaking. Bacteria were harvested by centrifugation at 3,000 × g for 10 min and washed in sterile M9 buffer.

Pekin duck is famous for its extensive adaptability, rapid growth during rearing stage, and superior taste rendered by the high content of intramuscular fat (IMF).

The IMF content in the breast muscle of Pekin ducks that are fed ad libitum or are overfed is higher than that of similarly fed Muscovy ducks.

Kimchi is a well-known probiotic food, with similar health benefits to probiotic yogurt. The bars indicate the proportion of each class at the designated time.(a) L4-stage C. (c) Nuclear localization of DAF-16 by Weissella species. cibaria was not consistent with the results for lipofuscin, which is a complex mixture of oxidized and cross-linked macromolecules including proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. We could therefore not conclude what the effects of dietary restriction on ROS levels were from our data. elegans by increasing the expression of daf-16 via the JNK and AMPK pathways. Based on q RT-PCR and mutant survival data, we predicted the pathways involved in lifespan extension of Weissella-fed C. JNK-1 and AAK-2 activate DAF-16 through the JNK and AMPK pathways, respectively.

Additionally, kimchi has a range of other health benefits including the promotion of brain-, skin- and colorectal-health as well as strengthening the immune system; kimchi has been shown to be effective against cancer, obesity, constipation and high cholesterol; it also has fibrolytic, antioxidative and antiageing properties. elegans were transferred to fresh m NGM plates seeded with each bacterial species on day 3, and body size was determined from 20 worms for each bacterial species. Values shown are the mean ± SD from 90 worms for each bacterial species. coli OP50 (To confirm the role of the aforementioned genes in lifespan extension, C. cibaria might be derived from the limitations of methods using DCF-DA. Lipofuscin levels in worms fed with both Weissella species were significantly lower than in worms fed with E. Metabolic and detoxification activities change with age in C. In addition, ROS levels were measured using 4-day-worms that fed on Weissella species for 24 h, while lipofuscin levels were measured using 14-, 16- and 18-day worms, which may have caused the inconsistency between ROS level and lipofuscin accumulation in W. The mechanism of lifespan extension of Weissella-fed C. Activated DAF-16 affected sod-3, hif-1 and other genes related to longevity.

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Studies using this chimera demonstrate that formation of stem-loop VI upstream of the IAPV IRES contributes to optimal IRES activity and viral yield. 6 Recognition of cogate transfer RNA during decoding ...................................................Phenotypic analysis showed that native Pekin ducks have smaller fibre diameter and larger density in the breast muscle at 3 weeks of age and higher intramuscular fat content at 6 weeks of age than those in Cherry Valley Pekin ducks.We detected 17 positively selected genes (PSGs) by comparing genes mainly involved with muscle organ development, muscle contraction, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor signalling pathway, and fatty acid metabolism.We show that Weissella koreensis and Weissella cibaria significantly (p Weissella species are lactic acid bacteria that have only recently been classified as a new genus. The stress-related genes sod-3 and hif-1 can also affect C. elegans lifespan; jnk-1 and aak-2 mutants were used to investigate the role of the JNK and AMPK pathways, respectively. elegans daf-16, aak-2 or jnk-1 mutants, which suggests that these genes are essential to lifespan extension in Weissella-fed C. JNK-1 and AAK-2 modulate DAF-16 activity by phosphorylation; specifically, the JNK family, a subgroup of the MAPK superfamily, is a part of the signal transduction cascade activated by exposure to environmental stress and cytokines. elegans aak-2 mutant was not extended, and the expression of the aak-2 gene significantly increased with feeding on Weissella. elegans, ATP levels significantly decreased, which is consistent with the activation of the AMPK pathway. elegans longevity by inducing dietary restriction and stress response and, consequently, downstream expression of daf-16 via the AMPK and JNK pathways. elegans was allowed to feed freely on the food source (E.Weissella species are found in fermented foods, including Korean traditional fermented vegetables and kimchi, sugar cane and the intestinal tracts of humans and other animals. coli OP50 for 3 days after hatching were transferred to fresh m NGM plates with 20 mg of E. Nematodes were classified into four classes based on their locomotion: class (A) normal coordinated sinusoidal locomotion; class (B) uncoordinated and/or sluggish movement; class (C) no movement except head or tail in response to prodding; and class (D) dead worms. We found that several age-related genes increased in Weissella-fed worms, and both W. Our results demonstrate that Weissella species promote longevity in C. We do not know if Weissella is lower in calories or less nutritious compared with E. Interestingly, although brood size decreased, the brooding period increased in Weissella-fed C. coli OP50 or Weissella); thus, dietary restriction was not artificially induced. elegans was not derived from a repulsion to Weissella and was not associated with lactic acid produced by Weissella.

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